Examining the Past for the Sake of the Future: International Diversification of Models Launched in England
England, often seen as the cradle of public liberties, has in 18th and 19th century engendered a series of cultural models which have later crossed the Atlantic and Pacific seas at the expense of some adaptations. This session is concerned with two of these models: the diffusion of friendly societies and of the illustrated newspapers in some Western societies. In both cases, we would like to argue that those who appropriated these patterns pregnant with unifying effects had to diversify it from a 'voluntarist' attitude in order to preserve the conditions necessary for competing or to adapt the model to nationalisms hostile to one another. Paper 1. The Construction of Diversity: The Friendly and Benefit Societies, Class, Gender and Imaginaries. Paper 2. Political Diversification against Technical Standardization: Forcing Nationalist Editorial Strategies into 19th Century Illustrated Press. It is the tension created by contradictory forces which I intend to analyse in my paper. I will particularly examine the result coming out of this tension at a crucial moment: that of the Franco-Prussian war and of the periods preceding and following this conflict, in 14 illustrated periodicals coming from four countries: France, Germany, England and Canada. This moment is important for two reasons: first it corresponds to a time where the illustrated press was a major means of construction of collective memories as it was distributed massively; and second this conflict not only resulted into a change of national boundaries between two important European countries, but also allowed the unification of Germany and the proclamation of King Wilhelm as the emperor of the new country.
Dr Jean-Pierre Bacot
Prof. Michele Martin
School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University